As part of the fight against terrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), many countries have established and improved the legislative and institutional frameworks of their national systems of export control of military items and dual-use goods and technologies. The introduction of a control system contributes to the non-proliferation of WMD, the fight against terrorism and to global and regional security.
The Republic of Croatia exercises export control over weapons and dual-use goods for the purposes of national and international safety, and to fulfil its international commitments as a contracting party and an active member of all major international agreements and conventions as well as a signatory of the documents relating to non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and conventional weapons.
Some of the relevant conventions and agreements are:
- The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty - NPT
- The Chemical Weapons Convention - CWC
- The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention - BTWC
Furthermore, the Republic of Croatia participates in the following international arrangements and regimes:
- The Wassenaar Arrangement – WA – the objective of this arrangement is to promote transparency and greater responsibility with respect to the transfer of conventional weapons and technologies and dual-use goods, plus to maintain the agreed control list of military goods and dual-use goods. Croatia joined the WA in June 2005.
- The Nuclear Suppliers Group – NSG – has the objective to establish a multilateral control over military goods and dual-use goods which could be used for the development of nuclear weapons, and to maintain the control list. Croatia has been a participant of the NSG since June 2005.
The Zangger Committee – it's objective is to help prevent the diversion of exported nuclear material from peaceful purposes to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosives. Croatia became a member in June 2006.
- The Australia Group – AG – has the objective to minimize the risk of proliferation of agents of chemical and biological war to the minimum possible measure, to maintain the agreed control list of chemical weapons precursors, dual-use goods which is used in the production of agents of chemical and biological war, biological agents and plant and animal pathogens. Croatia has been a member since April 2007.
The Republic of Croatia is still not a participant of the Missile Technology Control Regime – MTCR whose objective is to limit the proliferation of projectiles and technologies used in the production of projectiles, and to maintain the control list of military goods and dual-use goods.
Consequently, the advantages of establishing a system for export control of dual use items are found in strategic reasons and public safety, as well as in the potential economic benefits. The system of export control of dual use items is economically beneficial because it expands the possibilities of global trade, enables import of goods and technologies whose export is controlled by the exporter country which makes foreign investment easier, encourages opening new job opportunities as a result of foreign investment and imported technologies, and may increase export by encouraging the production that satisfies international standards.